Scanning electron microscope

  • Imaging of surfaces by an electron beam scanning the specimen with a resolution of max. 1nm

  • Conventional SEM observes specimens in vacuum. Samples are fixed and sputter-coated with gold. The coating back-scatters the electrons towards the detector

  • Environmental SEM (ESEM) observes specimens in their natural state under low pressure. Electrons are scatterd by the gaseous film on the surface of the specimen

SEM Arabidopsis stigma with pollen grains